History of the Ancient Hebrews - Printable Outline | Student Handouts
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History of the Ancient Hebrews
Free Printable Outline for History Students - Scroll for PDF File to Print - Ancient Hebrews - World History
Outline of Early Hebrew (Jewish) History       I.            Origins

a.       Semitic nomads of Mesopotamia

b.      Circa 2000 BCE – patriarch Abraham led his people from Ur to the Mediterranean shore

c.       Circa 1400 BCE – relocated to Egypt because of a drought

                                                               i.      Biblical story of Moses and Passover

     II.            Early leaders

a.       Originally ruled by judges, tribal elders, or rabbis

b.      King Saul

                                                               i.      Reigned circa 1047 BCE-circa 1007 BCE

c.       King David

                                                               i.      Reigned ca. 1007 BCE-ca. 970 BCE

d.      King Solomon

                                                               i.      Reigned ca. 970 BCE-ca. 930 BCE

e.      King Rehoboam

                                                               i.      Reigned ca. 930 BCE-915 BCE

  III.            King Saul

a.       First real king

b.      Anointed by Samuel

c.       United Hebrews

  IV.            King David

a.       Biblical story of David and Goliath

b.      Extended boundaries

                                                               i.      Conquered Canaanites in Canaan

1.       Canaanites eventually intermarried with Phoenicians

                                                             ii.      Conquered Philistines

1.       Origin of the term “Palestine”

c.       Strong united government

d.      Credited with writing “Psalms”

     V.            King Solomon

a.       Built a large palace

b.      Built first Jerusalem Temple

                                                               i.      “First Temple Period”

c.       Levied high taxes to pay for construction projects

                                                               i.      Made him somewhat unpopular

d.      Credited with authoring “The Song of Solomon”

  VI.            King Rehoboam

a.       Discontent over high taxes

b.      Ten northern tribes revolted and established kingdom of Israel (932 or 931 BCE)

c.       Two southern tribes remained loyal as the kingdom of Judah

d.      Separate states not as strong as unified state

VII.            Hebrews’ fate

a.       Israel

                                                               i.      Conquered by Assyria, 721 BCE

b.      Judah

                                                               i.      Conquered by King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, 586 BCE

                                                             ii.      Temple destroyed

                                                            iii.      Babylonian captivity, 586-538 BCE

1.       Ended when Babylon was conquered by King Cyrus of Persia, who allowed the Hebrews to return to Jerusalem

VIII.            Second Temple Period

a.       Peace under Persian rule for two centuries

b.      Alexander the Great conquered Persia and took over Palestine (333-325 BCE)

                                                               i.      Greeks ruled for approximately 150 years

c.       Maccabean Revolt (167-164 BCE)

                                                               i.      Independent country for 100+ years

d.      Roman conquest (63 BCE)

                                                               i.      Jewish kings (Herodians) ruled under Roman protection

                                                             ii.      6 CE – became an imperial province

   IX.            The Jewish-Roman Wars

a.       Jewish Rebellion, 66-73 CE

b.      Kitos War, 115-117 CE

c.       Bar Kokhba Revolt, 132-136 CE

     X.            First Jewish-Roman War, 66-73 CE

a.       Jewish rebellion

b.      Revolt crushed by future Emperor Titus

c.       Second Temple destroyed

                                                               i.      Treasures displayed in Rome

   XI.            Kitos War, 115-117 CE

a.       Revolt by Jews throughout the Roman Empire

b.      Cyprus, Egypt, Judea, Libya, Mesopotamia, and Syria

c.       Sparked when Roman forces fought the Parthians

d.      Romans won

e.      Second Jewish-Roman War

XII.            Bar Kokhba Revolt, 132-136 CE

a.       Last (Third) Jewish-Roman War

b.      Jews led by Simon bar Kokhba

                                                               i.      Many believed him to be the messiah

c.       Crushed by the Romans

                                                               i.      Led by Hadrian

d.      Results

                                                               i.      Jewish Diaspora (barred from Jerusalem)

                                                             ii.      Early Christians began to separate themselves from Judaism

XIII.            Hebrew contributions

a.       Monotheism – belief in one god

b.      Jewish Talmud

                                                               i.      Book of Jewish laws and thoughts

c.       Christianity and Islam

                                                               i.      World’s two largest religions are based around Jewish beliefs, practices, and teachings

d.      Jewish Tanakh

                                                               i.      Largely the same as the Christian Old Testament

                                                             ii.      Many stories have counterparts in the Muslim Qu’ran (Koran)

XIV.            Review questions

a.       Where did the Hebrews originate?

b.      Who is considered to be the first real king of the Hebrews?

c.       Who built the first Jerusalem Temple?

d.      How did the Hebrews come to form two separate kingdoms, Israel and Judah?

e.      What is the Babylonian captivity?

f.        Describe the Jewish revolt of 66-73 CE and its consequences.

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