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The growth and development of English parliamentary democracy is a complex and gradual process that spans centuries. It involves the evolution of political institutions, the expansion of individual rights, and the establishment of the principles of representative government. Here is an overview of the key stages and developments in the growth of English parliamentary democracy:

Medieval Roots (12th-14th Centuries): The roots of English parliamentary democracy can be traced back to the 12th and 13th centuries. During this period, English monarchs, particularly Henry II and his successors, began to establish legal norms and administrative structures that laid the foundation for a more centralized monarchy. The emergence of the common law system and the Magna Carta in 1215, which limited the arbitrary power of the king, were important early steps.

Model Parliament (1295): Under King Edward I, the Model Parliament of 1295 marked a significant development. It included not only nobles but also commoners, representing various counties and boroughs. This laid the groundwork for the concept of a representative assembly.

Habeas Corpus Act (1679): The Habeas Corpus Act was landmark legislation passed during the reign of Charles II. It established the principle that individuals could not be detained without proper legal procedures, thus protecting individual liberties.

Glorious Revolution (1688): The Glorious Revolution of 1688 was a pivotal moment in English history. It saw the overthrow of King James II and the ascension of William III and Mary II to the throne. The resulting Bill of Rights in 1689 limited the powers of the monarchy and affirmed the supremacy of Parliament.

Act of Union (1707): The Act of Union between England and Scotland in 1707 created the Kingdom of Great Britain, uniting the two nations under a single parliament. The Act of Union with Ireland in 1801 led to the formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Reform Acts (19th Century): Throughout the 19th century, a series of Reform Acts expanded suffrage and redefined representation in Parliament. These acts gradually extended voting rights to a broader section of the population, reducing property qualifications and increasing the number of eligible voters.

Representation of the People Act (1918)
: This landmark legislation, passed after World War I, significantly expanded suffrage in the UK, giving women over the age of 30 and all men over the age of 21 the right to vote. The Representation of the People Act of 1928 extended suffrage to all women over the age of 21, finally achieving universal suffrage.

Parliament Acts (1911 and 1949): The Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949 limited the powers of the House of Lords, ensuring that the elected House of Commons had the final say in most legislative matters. This further strengthened the role of the elected representatives in the legislative process.

Devolution: In recent decades, the UK has seen the devolution of powers to the Scottish Parliament, the Senedd (Welsh Parliament), and the Northern Ireland Assembly. This has allowed these regions greater control over their own affairs while retaining membership in the United Kingdom.

European Union Membership: Membership in the European Union (EU) from 1973 to 2020 had a significant impact on British parliamentary democracy. EU membership required the UK to comply with EU laws and regulations, influencing its legislative and regulatory framework.

Brexit (2020): The UK's decision to leave the EU (Brexit), confirmed by the 2016 referendum and finalized in 2020, marked a significant shift in the country's political landscape. It highlighted the importance of parliamentary sovereignty as the UK regained control over its laws and regulations.

The growth and development of English parliamentary democracy have been characterized by a gradual shift of power from the monarchy to elected representatives in Parliament, the expansion of suffrage and individual rights, and the adaptation of political institutions to changing social and political contexts. This process has made the United Kingdom a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarchy, where the elected Parliament is the supreme legislative authority. > World History > Growth of English Parliamentary Democracy