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Following World War II, several global economic policies and institutions were developed to promote international cooperation, economic stability, and recovery. These policies aimed to prevent the economic conditions that had contributed to the outbreak of two world wars and the Great Depression in the first half of the 20th century. Some key global economic policies and institutions that emerged after World War II include:

Bretton Woods System: The Bretton Woods Conference, held in July, 1944, in New Hampshire, USA, established the framework for post-war economic cooperation. The conference led to the creation of two key institutions:
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF): The IMF was established to promote international monetary cooperation and exchange rate stability. It provided financial assistance to member countries facing balance of payments problems and encouraged exchange rate stability through fixed but adjustable exchange rate systems.
  • World Bank (now the World Bank Group): The World Bank was established to provide long-term financial assistance for the reconstruction and development of war-ravaged countries. It focused on funding infrastructure projects and development initiatives in member nations.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT): The GATT, signed in 1947, was a multilateral agreement aimed at reducing trade barriers, such as tariffs and quotas, to promote international trade. It laid the groundwork for future trade liberalization efforts and ultimately evolved into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995.

Marshall Plan: Officially known as the European Recovery Program, the Marshall Plan was initiated by the United States in 1947. It provided substantial financial aid to Western European countries to help them rebuild their economies and infrastructure after World War II. The program aimed to foster economic stability and prevent the spread of communism.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
: UNCTAD, established in 1964, was designed to promote the development of developing countries in the global economy. It focused on issues related to trade, investment, and development, with the goal of reducing economic disparities between developed and developing nations.

Nixon Shock and the End of Bretton Woods: In 1971, President Richard Nixon announced the suspension of the U.S. dollar's convertibility into gold, effectively ending the Bretton Woods fixed exchange rate system. This event, known as the "Nixon Shock," led to the transition to a system of floating exchange rates, where currency values are determined by market forces.

Oil Crises: The 1970s saw two major oil crises, triggered by the OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) oil embargo in 1973-1974 and the Iranian Revolution in 1979. These events led to significant oil price increases, stagflation, and a focus on energy security in global economic policy discussions.

Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs): In the 1980s and 1990s, international financial institutions, primarily the IMF and World Bank, introduced structural adjustment programs. These programs were often implemented in developing countries and included policy measures aimed at liberalizing economies, reducing government intervention, and promoting market-oriented reforms.

WTO Establishment: The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established in 1995, replacing the GATT. The WTO expanded its scope to cover not only trade in goods but also trade in services and intellectual property. It continued to promote trade liberalization and resolve trade disputes among member countries.

Globalization and Free Trade Agreements: The late 20th and early 21st centuries saw the proliferation of free trade agreements (FTAs) and regional trade blocs, such as the European Union (EU) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA, later replaced by the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement or USMCA). These agreements aimed to reduce trade barriers and facilitate international trade.

These global economic policies and institutions have played a significant role in shaping the post-World War II global economic order. They have influenced international trade, monetary policy, development initiatives, and economic cooperation among nations, while also facing various challenges and criticisms along the way.