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Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were two of the major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, one of the world's earliest urban civilizations. These cities, located in what is now modern-day Pakistan, thrived around 2600-1900 BCE. Life in Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro was characterized by sophisticated urban planning, advanced infrastructure, and a well-organized society. Here are some key aspects of life in these ancient Indus Valley cities.

Urban Planning: Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were carefully planned cities with a grid-like street layout. The streets were straight and arranged in a north-south and east-west orientation, forming a precise grid. This level of urban planning was a remarkable feature of these ancient cities.

Architecture: The cities featured well-designed and standardized brick houses made of baked bricks. Houses typically had multiple rooms, private wells, and drainage systems. Some houses even had two or more stories. The uniformity of construction materials suggests a central authority or planning.

Sanitation and Drainage: One of the most remarkable aspects of these cities was their advanced drainage and sanitation systems. Each house had its own bathroom and toilet connected to a sophisticated sewage system. The streets were equipped with covered drains to carry away wastewater and rainwater.

Water Supply: Cities like Mohenjo-Daro had access to a public water supply system, with numerous wells distributed throughout the city. This allowed residents to access clean water for drinking and daily use.

Trade and Commerce: The Indus Valley Civilization engaged in trade with neighboring regions, including Mesopotamia. Artifacts found in the cities suggest a thriving trade network. The cities likely served as centers for manufacturing and trade of goods like pottery, jewelry, and textiles.

Agriculture: Agriculture was the backbone of the Indus Valley economy. The region's fertile soil, supported by the Indus River, allowed for the cultivation of crops such as wheat, barley, cotton, and rice. Irrigation systems were developed to manage water resources.

Writing System: The Indus script, which remains undeciphered, was used for writing, possibly for record-keeping or religious purposes. Thousands of inscriptions have been discovered, but their meaning remains a subject of ongoing research.

Religion: The religious beliefs of the Indus Valley Civilization are not well understood due to the lack of deciphered texts. However, the presence of various seals and figurines suggests the worship of deities or spiritual practices.

Art and Culture: The civilization produced distinctive pottery, jewelry, and figurines, often characterized by intricate designs and motifs. There is evidence of a sophisticated artistic and cultural life.

Decline: The exact reasons for the decline of Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, and the Indus Valley Civilization remain a subject of debate among historians. Some theories include environmental factors, such as changes in the course of the Indus River, and possible invasions or migrations.

Despite the mysteries surrounding the Indus Valley Civilization, Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro stand as remarkable examples of early urban planning and civilization. Their advanced infrastructures, sanitation systems, and organized layouts, are a testament to the ingenuity of their inhabitants and their ability to create complex societies in ancient times. > World History > Ancient India