Results of the Industrial Revolution Outline | Student Handouts
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Results of the Industrial Revolution

        I.            Results of the Industrial RevolutionResults of the Industrial Revolution - Free printable outline for high school World History students.

a.       Economic changes

                                                               i.      Expansion of world trade

                                                             ii.      Factory system

                                                            iii.      Mass production of goods

                                                           iv.      Industrial capitalism

                                                             v.      Increased standard of living

                                                           vi.      Unemployment

b.      Political changes

                                                               i.      Decline of landed aristocracy

                                                             ii.      Growth and expansion of democracy

                                                            iii.      Increased government involvement in society

                                                           iv.      Increased power of industrialized nations

                                                             v.      Nationalism and imperialism stimulated

                                                           vi.      Rise to power of businesspeople

c.       Social changes

                                                               i.      Development and growth of cities

                                                             ii.      Improved status and earning power of women

                                                            iii.      Increase in leisure time

                                                           iv.      Population increases

                                                             v.      Problems—economic insecurity, increased deadliness of war, urban slums, etc.

                                                           vi.      Science and research stimulated

      II.            Economic changes – expansion of world trade

a.       Increased production meant that industrialized nations produced more than could be consumed internally

b.      Sought new foreign markets for selling manufactured goods

c.       Bought many raw materials from foreign markets

d.      New iron, steam-powered ships, along with other technological advances, made international trade (and travel) cheaper, safer, and more efficient

    III.            Economic changes – expansion of world trade – free trade and tariffs

a.       Free trade—trade without barriers or tariffs—was initially used

b.      As nations competed for markets, protective tariffs were put in place to limit foreign competition within an industrialized nation and its colonies

c.       Motivation was to protect businesses in the home country and colonies, but this often meant people in the home country or colonies paid inflated prices for goods

    IV.            Economic changes – factory system possible due to standardized parts

a.       Eli Whitney is popularly credited with the invention of interchangeable parts in the late 1700s

                                                               i.      But interchangeable parts had already been used in Europe

b.      Before the late 1700s, each part of an item (like a musket) was made individually by a single person, with each part made to fit the whole

c.       Standardized, or interchangeable, parts were created en masse to make a lot of duplicate products (such as hundreds of muskets)

d.      Manufacturers decided upon standard sizes for their goods and created large quantities of components

                                                               i.      Such as deciding that a musket barrels should be two feet long and making 100 duplicate musket barrels, then deciding that triggers for these muskets should be two inches tall and making 100 2-inch triggers

e.      Standardized parts could be kept in a set location in a factory

                                                               i.      As a worker assembled each article, he or she would take whatever parts were needed from a bin of standardized (interchangeable) parts

1.       Henry Ford later improved on this idea with the moving assembly line

      V.            Economic changes – factory system perfected with the assembly line

a.       Developed by Henry Ford between 1908 and 1915

b.      Brought the work to the worker instead of the worker to the work

c.       Product moves along a conveyor belt, with each worker contributing labor along the way to create the finished product

    VI.            Economic changes – factory system – assembly line brings division of labor

a.       Assembly line brings the work to the worker, saving time

b.      Each worker specializes in one part

c.       An automobile worker may spend 30 years in a factory only ever putting passenger-side doors on motor vehicles

d.      Focusing on one aspect of production can be repetitive but can also make a worker an expert at that particular aspect

  VII.            Economic changes – factory system

a.       Manufacture comes from the Latin manu and facere, meaning to make by hand

                                                               i.      But during the Industrial Revolution, the meaning of manufacturer switched from the person who made an article by hand to the capitalist who hired workers to make articles

b.      Workers no longer owned the means of production (simple hand tools)

                                                               i.      Instead, the newer means of production (expensive machinery) were owned by the capitalist

VIII.            Economic changes – mass production of goods

a.       Motor vehicle production in the United States

                                                               i.      1895 – 33,000 motor vehicles

                                                             ii.      1910 – 181,000 motor vehicles

                                                            iii.      2000 – 5,542,000 passenger cars alone

b.      Factors contributing to mass production

                                                               i.      Standardized (or interchangeable) parts

                                                             ii.      Assembly line

                                                            iii.      Labor division and specialization

c.       Mass production meant more items were produced at lower costs

                                                               i.      More people could afford to buy manufactured goods, which in turn spurred demand

    IX.            Economic changes – industrial capitalism and the working class

a.       Pre-Industrial Revolution rural families did not rely solely on wages for sustenance

                                                               i.      Owned their own farms or gardens where they raised most of their own food

                                                             ii.      Made their own clothing

                                                            iii.      Unemployment was rare

b.      Industrialization destroyed workers’ independence

                                                               i.      Workers in cities did not have the means to grow their own food or make their own clothing

                                                             ii.      Workers relied entirely upon their employers for wages with which they bought everything they needed

      X.            Economic changes – industrial capitalism’s risks

a.       Workers came to rely entirely on their employers for their livelihoods

                                                               i.      No more small family farms or gardens to provide extra food

                                                             ii.      No more day-laboring for a neighboring farmer to earn extra money

                                                            iii.      When the factory slowed down, the worker had nowhere to go for sustenance

b.      Entrepreneurs assumed enormous risk in establishing new enterprises

                                                               i.      No more workers working from home—capitalists had to supply a factory

                                                             ii.      No more custom orders—capitalists had to anticipate demand

                                                            iii.      No more at-will laborers—workers relied on capitalists for steady labor

    XI.            Economic changes – industrial capitalism

a.       The financial investments required to run large industries brought about modern capitalism

b.      Capital = wealth that is used to produce more wealth

c.       Entrepreneur = person who invests his or her money in a business to make a profit

d.      Corporation = company owned by stockholders who have purchased shares of stock

                                                               i.      Actual running of the company left to hired managers rather than to the stockholders

                                                             ii.      As industries grew and small business operations fell into obscurity, the relationship between workers and business owners disintegrated

  XII.            Economic changes – industrial capitalism’s problems

a.       Small manufacturers cannot compete with large corporations

b.      Consumers must buy from large corporations

c.       Workers have had to fight for decent wages and working conditions

d.      Large corporations can influence governments

XIII.            Economic changes – increased standard of living

a.       Mass production made manufactured goods less expensive, so more people could afford them

b.      Standard of living wasn’t raised for everyone—factories paid low wages, and many immigrants and rural-to-urban migrants lived poorer lives than their parents and grandparents had lived

XIV.            Economic changes – unemployment

a.       Overproduction

                                                               i.      Also called under-consumption

                                                             ii.      Mass production anticipates demand—if goods don’t sell, a manufacturer produces less and lays off workers

b.      Recession

                                                               i.      Overproduction across many industries with widespread layoffs

c.       Depression

                                                               i.      Long-lasting recession

  XV.            Political changes – decline of the landed aristocracy

a.       Before the Industrial Revolution – power was in the hands of the landed aristocracy and monarchs

                                                               i.      Landed aristocracy  refers to lords, dukes, etc., who owned the land

                                                             ii.      Although vassalage was pretty much gone from Europe by the 18th century, the working relationship between lords (landowners) and peasants (who worked the land) remained the same

1.       Peasants either worked the land for lords or rented land from them

                                                            iii.      Wealth was based on agriculture, which meant that those who owned the most land were the wealthiest

1.       Landed aristocracy owned and controlled the most land, making this the wealthiest and highest-ranking socio-economic group

b.      Industrial Revolution – factories became more valuable than land

                                                               i.      Wealth of the aristocracy dwindled

                                                             ii.      Growing middle class, with wealth based in industry, wanted more political power

XVI.            Political changes – decline of the landed aristocracy – case study: The Corn Laws

a.       Problem: British landowners and agriculturalists (lords and farmers) wanted high prices for their corn

                                                               i.      Solution: Tariffs known as the Corn Laws established in 1815

b.      New problem: The growing working class could not afford corn

                                                               i.      Solution: Repeal of the Corn laws in 1846

c.       Newer problem: The price of corn declined following the repeal of the Corn Laws, decreasing the wealth, power, and prestige of the landed aristocracy in Great Britain

                                                               i.      Solution: There was no solution

1.       The landed aristocracy began its fall from economic and political power

2.       Economic and political power shifted to the wealthy capitalist, middle, and working classes

XVII.            Political changes – growth and expansion of democracy

a.       The middle class grew during the Industrial Revolution

                                                               i.      Gained more rights

b.      The working class effectively began with the Industrial Revolution

                                                               i.      The working class fought for rights in the workplace

                                                             ii.      The working class demanded and earned a voice in government

XVIII.            Political changes – increased government involvement in society

a.       Government actions to help workers

                                                               i.      Legalization of unions

                                                             ii.      Established minimum wage

                                                            iii.      Standards for working conditions

                                                           iv.      Forms of social security

b.      Government actions to help consumers

                                                               i.      Regulation and inspection of goods and foodstuffs

c.       Government actions to help businesses

                                                               i.      Laws to stop or limit monopolies

                                                             ii.      Some governments took control of vital industries

XIX.            Political changes – increased power of industrialized nations

a.       With wealth came power

b.      Imperialism expanded

c.       Imperialistic, industrialized nations built up their navies to gain and protect assets

  XX.            Political changes – nationalism and imperialism stimulated

a.       Increased production meant an increased need for raw materials

b.      Industrialized nations expanded their colonial empires and spheres of influence in their search for more raw materials

                                                               i.      Worldwide scramble for colonies

                                                             ii.      Fought the peoples in the lands they controlled

                                                            iii.      Fought one another for colonies and spheres of influence

c.       Governments saw imperialist expansion as the key to continued industrial growth and wealth

XXI.            Political changes – rise to power of businesspeople

a.       Along with the working classes, businesspeople gained political rights

b.      “Captains of industry”  or “robber barons” – along with financiers

                                                               i.      Wealth brought political influence

XXII.            Social changes – development and growth of cities

a.       Paris, France

                                                               i.      18th century – 600,000 people

                                                             ii.      Circa 1900 – over 2,714,000 in the Paris urban area

                                                            iii.      Circa 2000 – over 11,000,000 in the Paris urban area

b.      London, England

                                                               i.      18th century – 500,000 people

                                                             ii.      Circa 1900 – over 6,200,000 in the London urban area

                                                            iii.      Circa 2000 – over 7,100,000 in the London urban area

c.       Rural-to-urban migrants = people who left the countryside to live in cities

d.      A sign of an industrialized nation is that a large proportion of the population lives and works in urban areas

XXIII.            Social change – development and growth of cities – case studies: Liverpool and Manchester

a.       Liverpool

                                                               i.      1800 – population under 100,000

                                                             ii.      1850 – population over 300,000 (part of the increase due to the Irish fleeing the potato famine)

                                                            iii.      1900 – population over 700,000

                                                           iv.      Major British port city which grew during the Industrial Revolution

                                                             v.      Population peaked in the 1930s and has been declining ever since due to the decline in manufacturing and imperialism

b.      Manchester

                                                               i.      1800 – population circa 328,000

                                                             ii.      1850 – population circa 1,037,000

                                                            iii.      1900 – population circa 2,357,000

                                                           iv.      Nicknamed “Cottonopolis” in the mid-to-late 19th century because of its textile factories

                                                             v.      Began to decline after the Industrial Revolution but has stabilized due to new industries and greater business diversification

XXIV.            Social changes – improved status and earning power of women

a.       Initially, factory owners hired women and children because they worked for lower wages

                                                               i.      This brought many women, otherwise impoverished, to cities to work in factories

                                                             ii.      From England to Japan, young women moved from farms to factories, hoping to earn money

1.       Risked low wages, sexual harassment, and issues adjusting to urban living

                                                            iii.      Governments limited the work of children and, at times, of women

b.      Women gained economic power and independence

                                                               i.      Before industrialization, it was almost impossible for a woman to remain single and live on her own

                                                             ii.      Factories and urban centers attracted women in large numbers

                                                            iii.      Women fought for and eventually gained political rights

XXV.            Social changes – increase in leisure time

a.       Labor-saving devices were invented and produced

                                                               i.      Vacuum cleaners

                                                             ii.      Washing machines

                                                            iii.       Refrigerators

b.      Entrepreneurs and inventors developed new forms of entertainment

                                                               i.      Moving pictures

                                                             ii.      Amusement parks

c.       Birth of the weekend

                                                               i.      Traditionally, Western nations had Sunday (the Christian day of rest) as the only day off from work

                                                             ii.      Saturday was added (after the struggles of Jewish labor unionists) to accommodate the religious observances of Jewish factory workers (whose Sabbath, or Shabbat, runs from Friday at sundown to Saturday at sundown)

XXVI.            Social changes – population increases

a.       Agricultural Revolution ↘

                                                               i.      Increased food production ↘

1.       Lower food prices ↘

a.       People ate more ↘

                                                                                                                                       i.      More healthy babies were born ↘

1.       Population skyrocketed

b.      Europe

                                                               i.      1750 – 144,000,000 people

                                                             ii.      1900 – 325,000,000 people

c.       England

                                                               i.      1750 – 11,000,000 people

                                                             ii.      1900 – 30,000,000 people

d.      Many people immigrated to industrialized countries

                                                               i.      Numerous nationalities to the United States

                                                             ii.      Irish to Manchester and Liverpool in England

e.      Population growth in industrialized nations required growing even more food

XXVII.            Social changes – problems

a.       Monotony of assembly lines and factory life

b.      Loss of craftsmanship in manufactured goods

c.       War became more deadly as weapons became more technologically advanced and were mass produced

d.      Economic insecurity – workers relied entirely on their jobs for sustenance

XXVIII.            Social changes – science and research stimulated

a.       Scientific and technological discoveries became profitable instead of simply beneficial

b.      Companies and governments were willing to invest in research and development

c.       Patent law

                                                               i.      Came into its modern form under England’s Queen Anne (reigned 1702-1714)

                                                             ii.      Inventors have the exclusive right to produce their new inventions for a period of time

XXIX.            Review Questions

a.       Describe the economic, political, and social changes which resulted from the Industrial Revolution.

b.      What risks did workers face from the factory system of production?

c.       How did women benefit from the Industrial Revolution?

d.      Imagine that you are a government official in a developing nation.  What lessons for your country might you take away from a study of the Industrial Revolution?  What pitfalls might you want to avoid?

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