Growth and Development of Medieval and Early Modern France - Outline | Student Handouts
 
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Growth & Development of Medieval & Early Modern France
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Growth & Development of Medieval & Early Modern France - Free printable outline (PDF file) for high school World History or European History students.I.                    The Capetian Rulers (“The House of Capet,” 987-1328)

a.       987—last of Charlemagne’s French successors died

                                                   i.      Hugh Capet—a feudal lord—elected king by French nobles because they thought he was weak

                                                 ii.      France was then only a small duchy (duke’s territory)

1.        Centered around Paris

2.       Surrounded by independent states ruled by feudal lords

b.      Hugh Capet and his successors ruled France for over 300 years

                                                   i.      Increased the monarch’s powers

                                                 ii.      Strong central government

                                               iii.      Enlarged their domain by taking lands from nobles

c.       Leading Capetian monarchs

                                                   i.      Philip Augustus (1180-1223)

1.        Royal control over English land in France

2.       Won Toulouse (located in southern France) from Albigensians

                                                 ii.      Louis IX (1226-1270)

1.        Established new currency system

2.       Restricted power of nobles and their private wars

3.       Legal reforms to bring justice under the king rather than the nobles

                                               iii.      Philip IV “The Fair” (1285-1314)

1.        Increased power over the Church

a.       Taxed church lands

b.      Seized Knight Templars’ wealth

c.       Moved papacy from Rome to Avignon

2.       Estates General

a.       Three estates based on class

                                                                                                                           i.      First Estate—high-ranking clergy

                                                                                                                         ii.      Second Estate—nobles

                                                                                                                       iii.      Third Estate—everyone else, from merchants to peasants

b.      First called by Philip the Fair in 1302

                                                                                                                           i.      Gave the people a voice

                                                                                                                         ii.      Helped gain Philip IV support for his actions

3.       Increased his territory

                                               iv.      Louis XI (1461-1483)

1.        Royal control over all of France, minus Brittany

2.       Gave little control to nobles or Estates General

II.                  The Hundred Years’ War—1337-1453

a.       Cause

                                                   i.      French kings wanted to eliminate English lands in France

b.      French defeats

                                                   i.      Crécy, 1346

                                                 ii.      Poitiers, 1356

                                               iii.      Agincourt, 1415

                                               iv.      French knights destroyed

c.       Joan of Arc

                                                   i.      Young peasant girl

                                                 ii.      Believed God chose her to lead French to victory

                                               iii.      1429—persuaded Charles VII to led her lead the French armies for a year

                                               iv.      Had Charles VII crowned at Reims

                                                 v.      Ended English siege of Orleans

                                               vi.      Captured by the English

1.        Charged by Church with heresy and witchcraft

2.       1430—burned at the stake

                                             vii.      Inspirational

1.        Inspired the monarch and soldiers

2.       Aroused patriotism and national pride among the people

d.      Results

                                                   i.      English gradually driven out of the country

1.        1453—only Calais still held by the English

2.       End of the Hundred Years’ War

                                                 ii.      France became a united nation

                                               iii.      King’s power increased because so many nobles had been killed

III.                Religious Wars between Protestants and Catholics

a.       16th century

b.      Wars between Huguenots (French Protestants) and Catholics

c.       Henry of Navarre (Henry IV)—Bourbon dynasty

                                                   i.      French Huguenot

                                                 ii.      1589—Converted to Catholicism when he became king of France

                                               iii.      Edict of Nantes (1598)—granted religious toleration to Huguenots

IV.                House of Bourbon—leading ministers

a.       Henry IV (1589-1610): Minister—Sully (1597-1610)

                                                   i.      Edict of Nantes (1598)

                                                 ii.      Reduced spending to increase revenue

                                               iii.      Public works

                                               iv.      Increased foreign trade and agricultural production

                                                 v.      France grew rich and powerful under him

b.      Louis XIII (1610-1643)

                                                   i.      Minister—Cardinal Richelieu (1624-1642)

1.        Introduced absolutism to the French monarchy

a.       Forced Huguenots to relinquish their special political and military privileges

b.      Destroyed castles of the nobles

c.       Took over control of local government

                                                                                                                           i.      Local power now held by intendants, appointed by the king

2.       Made France a leading  European power

a.       Hurt the Hapsburgs (Austrians) during the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)

                                                 ii.      Minister—Cardinal Mazarin (1643-1661)

1.        Fronde—destroyed the nobles’ power after lords tried to regain power

2.       Added land

3.       Increased power of France’s absolute monarchy

c.       Louis XIV (1643-1715)

                                                   i.      Minister—Colbert (1665-1683)

1.        Budget system

2.       Encouraged industry and agriculture

3.       Built up French naval forces

4.      Encouraged trade by removing internal tariffs

5.       Promoted colonial expansion in America and India

6.       Allowed Louis to pay for costly wars

V.                  Louis XIV—“I am the state!”

a.       Absolute rule

                                                   i.      No check on royal power

                                                 ii.      Ruled 72 years

                                               iii.      Never called the Estates General

                                               iv.      Held all power—administering justice, collecting and spending revenue (taxes), making laws, waging war, etc.

b.      Encouragement of culture

                                                   i.      Encouraged literature and the arts

                                                 ii.      Leading French dramatists

1.        Corneille—wrote tragedies

2.       Moliere—satirist

3.       Racine—dramatic poet

                                               iii.      Francophiles

1.        Cultured Europeans adopted French manners, novels, and plays

2.       Lingua franca—French language became spoken by international diplomats and high society

c.       The court at Versailles

                                                   i.      Large palace built outside of Paris

                                                 ii.      Nobles lived here where the king could monitor them

                                               iii.      Very expensive to build and maintain

d.      Religious difficulties

                                                   i.      1685—revoked the Edict of Nantes

                                                 ii.      Persecuted Huguenots

1.        Many fled to England, Holland, Prussia, and to what became the United States

a.       Hurt French industry because many were skilled workers

e.       Wars

                                                   i.      Believed that the Rhine River was the “natural frontier” of France

                                                 ii.      Brought France to war with many European countries

                                               iii.      Costly wars weakened France

                                               iv.      Little territory gained

 
 
 
 
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