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Scipio Africanus (236-183 B.C.E.) > Historical Figures > "S" Names Historical Figures > Scipio Africanus
 Scipio Africanus Biography Workbook         
 Scipio Africanus Biography Workbook         
Scipio Africanus the Elder, also known as Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, was a prominent Roman general and statesman who lived in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE. He is best known for his crucial role in the Second Punic War and for defeating the Carthaginian general Hannibal at the Battle of Zama, which led to the eventual Roman victory over Carthage.

Scipio Africanus (236-183 B.C.E.) Early Life: Scipio Africanus was born in 236 or 235 BCE into the prominent Scipio family in Rome. He came from a family of military leaders, and he was raised in an environment that valued military excellence.

Punic Wars: Scipio Africanus rose to prominence during the Second Punic War (218-201 BCE), a conflict between Rome and Carthage. He was elected as a consul in 205 BCE and was given command of the Roman legions in Spain, where he gained valuable military experience.

Invasion of North Africa: In 204 BCE, Scipio Africanus proposed a bold plan to end the war by taking the fight to Carthaginian territory. He led a Roman invasion of North Africa, hoping to draw Hannibal away from Italy. This strategy worked, and Hannibal was recalled to defend Carthage.

Battle of Zama: The decisive Battle of Zama took place in 202 BCE. Scipio Africanus and his Roman legions faced Hannibal's Carthaginian forces. Using innovative tactics and his understanding of Hannibal's strategies, Scipio Africanus won a decisive victory. This battle marked the end of the Second Punic War.

Peace Treaty: Following the victory at Zama, Scipio Africanus negotiated a peace treaty with Carthage, known as the Treaty of Zama. The treaty imposed harsh terms on Carthage and effectively ended the war. Scipio's victory and diplomacy were instrumental in securing Roman dominance in the Mediterranean.

The generosity of Scipio. Later Career: Scipio Africanus continued to play a significant role in Roman politics and military affairs. He served as consul multiple times and played a key role in Roman expansion into Greece and the eastern Mediterranean.

Exile: Scipio Africanus faced political challenges and accusations of corruption later in his career. In response, he went into self-imposed exile in the Greek city of Liternum, where he lived the remainder of his life.

Legacy: Scipio Africanus is remembered as one of Rome's greatest military leaders. His victory at Zama and his strategic acumen earned him the nickname "Africanus." He is celebrated for his role in bringing an end to the Second Punic War and his contributions to Roman military tactics and strategy.

Scipio Africanus the Elder's leadership and contributions to Roman history had a lasting impact, and he remains a celebrated figure in the annals of Roman military history.

Above: The generosity of Scipio. Click here to enlarge.
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