Ancient Roman civilization left an indelible mark on the world, contributing significantly to various aspects of human culture, governance, engineering, architecture, and more. The Roman legacy continues to influence contemporary societies in numerous ways. We are delighted to share ancient Roman civilization with World History students through our large selection of free printables, PowerPoints, online learning games, and more.. Here are some of the key contributions of ancient Rome to the world.|
Law and Governance:
Engineering and Architecture:
- Roman Law: The Roman legal system laid the foundation for modern legal principles. The "Justinian Code," compiled during the reign of Emperor Justinian, remains a significant legal source.
- Republican and Imperial Governance: Roman governance models, such as the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, influenced subsequent systems of government, including representative democracy and the idea of a centralized state.
Language and Literature:
- Aqueducts: Romans engineered extensive aqueduct systems to transport water, allowing for the growth of urban centers. Some aqueducts are still in use today.
- Roads: The Roman road network, exemplified by the "Via Appia," facilitated trade, communication, and military movement. It contributed to the development of modern road systems.
- Arches and Domes: Roman architectural innovations, including the use of arches and domes, are evident in structures like the Colosseum and the Pantheon. These techniques continue to influence architecture.
Culture and Art:
- Latin: The Latin language served as the basis for Romance languages, including French, Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese. It also had a significant impact on English vocabulary and legal terminology.
- Literature: Roman literature produced notable works, including the epic poem "The Aeneid" by Virgil and the philosophical writings of Seneca, Cicero, and Marcus Aurelius.
Urban Planning and Infrastructure:
- Mosaics and Frescoes: Roman art featured intricate mosaics and frescoes in public and private buildings, showcasing artistic talent and capturing daily life.
- Sculpture: Roman sculpture drew inspiration from Greek art and contributed to the development of realistic portraiture.
- Entertainment: The Romans popularized various forms of entertainment, such as gladiator contests and chariot races, which continue to influence contemporary sports and entertainment.
Military and Engineering Innovations:
- Urban Design: Roman cities featured well-planned layouts with forums, temples, and public spaces. The concept of a city center, as seen in the Roman forum, persists in modern urban planning.
- Sewage and Sanitation: Roman sewage and sanitation systems improved public health and were precursors to modern urban plumbing.
- Military Tactics: Roman military strategies and formations, like the Roman legion, have had a lasting impact on warfare and military organization.
- Siege Engineering: Roman engineers developed advanced siege machinery and tactics, influencing the design of fortifications and siege warfare.
Calendar: The Roman calendar, with its system of months and days, served as the basis for the Gregorian calendar, the calendar system used worldwide today.
- Christianity:The spread of Christianity from its origins in the Roman Empire had profound implications for world religion and culture. The Roman adoption of Christianity by Emperor Constantine marked a pivotal moment in religious history.
Civic Values: Roman virtues such as gravitas (dignity), pietas (duty to the state and family), and virtus (courage and moral excellence) continue to influence ideas about ethics and civic responsibility.
Legacy of the Roman Empire: The fall of the Roman Empire in the West led to the emergence of various successor states and the continuation of Roman traditions in the Byzantine Empire. The idea of a united Europe, influenced by Roman notions of unity, has shaped European history and politics.
These contributions by ancient Rome have had a profound and enduring impact on Western civilization and the world at large. The Roman legacy serves as a testament to the ingenuity, culture, and organizational skills of this remarkable ancient civilization. Our free printable worksheets, workbooks, and more, are here to help bring ancient Rome back to life for World History students.