The Catholic king of England, James II (James VII of
Scotland), was deposed after his second wife, Mary of Modena,
gave birth to a son in 1688. Known as "the Old Pretender," James
Francis Edward Stuart (1688-1766) was raised in France.
When his father, James II, died in 1701, James Francis Edward
Stuart declared himself to be king of England and Scotland. This
claim was recognized by France, Modena, the Papal States, and
Spain. Those who supported James Francis Edward Stuart as the
rightful king of England and Scotland became known as Jacobites.
Charles Edward Stuart, commonly called "Bonnie Prince Charlie,"
was the son of James Francis Edward Stuart. In 1745, Bonnie
Prince Charlie led an invasion to take the throne of Great
Britain for his father. Bonnie Prince Charlie sailed to
Scotland, where many of the highlanders were Jacobites, and
raised an army. Charlie's troops reached as far south as
Derbyshire in England, but retreated due to a lack of English
Charlie was eventually defeated by Prince William, Duke of
Cumberland, at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Prince William
was a son of the current British monarch, George II. Prince
William viciously pursued Jacobite supporters of the battle,
which earned him the nickname "the Butcher" from Scottish
Charlie was forced to flee Scotland and return to France.
According to legend, a Scottish Jacobite named Flora MacDonald
helped Charlie to escape from Scotland's Isle of Skye by
disguising him as her Irish maid, "Betty Burke," on a small
boat. This boat trip was later immortalized in "The Skye Boat
Bonnie Prince Charlie spent the rest of his life hoping to gain
the British throne, without any success. The Jacobite movement
eventually fell away. Charlie died in Rome in 1788, where his
remains are buried in St. Peter's Basilica.