Congress of Vienna, 1814-1815 - Free Printable History Outline
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The Congress of Vienna
Free Printable Outline for World History - Scroll Down to Print (PDF) - Napoleonic Era - Age of Reaction

       I.            Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)

a.       European monarchs sought to turn back the clock to 1789 and restore Europe’s Old Regime

b.      Members included the “Big Four” and France

                                                               i.      Austria – Prince Metternich

                                                             ii.      England – Duke of Wellington and Lord Castlereagh

                                                            iii.      France – Talleyrand

                                                           iv.      Prussia – Frederick William III, Hardenberg, and Humboldt

                                                             v.      Russia – Tsar Alexander I

     II.            Metternich (1773-1859)

a.       Opposed democracy and nationalism

b.      Proposed principles of compensation and legitimacy

  III.            Compensation and legitimacy

a.       Compensation

                                                               i.      Napoleon’s enemies rewarded with land

                                                             ii.      Other nations compensated for land taken

                                                            iii.      Redrew the map of Europe

b.      Legitimacy

                                                               i.      Restoration of pre-Napoleon rulers

                                                             ii.      House of Bourbon – France, Spain, and the two Sicilies

                                                            iii.      House of Braganza – Portugal

                                                           iv.      House of Orange – Netherlands

                                                             v.      House of Savoy – Sardinia

                                                           vi.      German princes – territories in the Confederation of the Rhine

                                                          vii.      Pope and Catholic Church – Papal states

  IV.            Territorial changes

a.       Austria – gained Lombardy, Modena, Parma, Tuscany, and Venetia (all are areas in modern Italy)

b.      England – gained Cape Colony, Ceylon, Heligoland, Guiana, and Malta (areas in Africa, the Americas, and Asia)

c.       Holland – gained Austrian Netherlands (Belgium)

d.      Prussia – gained part of Poland, land along the Rhine River, 40% of Saxony, Swedish Pomerania, and Westphalia

e.      Russia – gained Finland and part of Poland

f.        Sweden – gained Norway

     V.            Fate of nationalism

a.       People had no say over territorial changes

b.      Language, nationality, and religion weren’t taken into consideration

c.       Ideas of democracy and self-government were rejected by European leadership

d.      Soon enough, concessions were made

  VI.            Louis XVIII of France

a.       No more divine right of kings

b.      Charter (Constitution) granted in 1814

c.       Could not restore feudalism and serfdom

d.      Continuing religious toleration guaranteed

VII.            Buffer states

a.       Designed to prevent France from again becoming a threat

b.      Holland and Sardinia enlarged and strengthened

c.       European nations guaranteed Switzerland’s neutrality

VIII.            Quadruple and Holy Alliances

a.       Metternich desired to maintain the status quo and make the Vienna treaties permanent

b.      Quadruple Alliance of 1815

                                                               i.      Austria, England, Prussia, and Russia

                                                             ii.      France joined in 1818

                                                            iii.      Pledged to put down democratic or nationalistic revolts

c.       Holy Alliance

                                                               i.      Organized by Tsar Alexander I of Russia

                                                             ii.      Most European monarchs joined

                                                            iii.      Pledged to govern with charity, justice, and peace

1.       But none of them did so

   IX.            Results of the Congress of Vienna

a.       Concert of Europe – group of leading nations which periodically met to discuss issues regarding stability

b.      Temporary suppression of democratic and nationalistic ideals

c.       International peace – no general war in Europe until World War I a hundred years later

                                                               i.      Crimean War (1854-1856)

                                                             ii.      Austro-Prussian War (1866)

                                                            iii.      Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)

     X.            Review questions

a.       What countries made up the “Big Four” at the Congress of Vienna?

b.      What were the principles of compensation and legitimacy?

c.       How did the Congress of Vienna redraw the map of Europe?

d.      What was the purpose of the Quadruple Alliance?

e.      What were the results of the Congress of Vienna?

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